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5 Paragraph Essay Introduction Hook

How to Structure Your Essay Introduction

Making an outline will support you in writing an introduction. In this report, our experts will teach you the greatest essay Introduction tips feasible and give you with some helpful samples.Understanding how to write an essay introduction may appear the best begin for any student who is struggling with his academic process. Use your imagination multiplied by ability.

This is accurate with regards to the goal of this brief but strong starting paragraph.

Sadly, numerous college students handle only the first of them. For the most element, this makes ideal sense. Soon after all, the writers who really realize what it indicates to engage their readers are the professionals. Why? Simply because they know very nicely that their readers are their bread and butter and they will depart at a moment’s discover if the creating becomes dull. Students, on the other hand, have a captive audience. Teachers and professors are paid to study the function of their college students, so why must the student care if their writing is engaging?

When you appear at Ancient Rome and Ancient Greece there are apparent similarities. In this paper, we will discuss them. But the main goal of this paper is to show people variations that produced people ancient counties the most influential and inspirational for potential generations.

what to write in your introduction paragraph

Introductions matter, and I have designed this report to supply a framework for how to write essay introductions that are clear, robust and engaging. The ideas are applicable to the essays of middle college and higher school writing all the way up through writing in school and graduate school.

Descriptive gun control essay. A descriptive essay is the place you describe the subject in terms of senses. In our case, you compose about the photographs, sounds, or even smells you can associate with the complete absence of individually possessed firearms or with their overpowering amounts.

Below is a sample of an introduction that is less efficient simply because it does not apply the principles mentioned above.

Evidently, gun manage as an essay topic provides the most fertile ground for persuasive and argumentative essays. So, these are the most typical types of essays that students have to create on gun control.

An Essay Introduction Sample: The “Wrong” Way

An essay is our opinion on the text, this is reflected in essaybasics.com/ any statement we make. By taking a nuanced place we really don’t need to say that we are arguing to a certain extent. It is implicit in our response.

Tips for creating an essay introduction:

Without the thematic framework and subject sentences, you can not have a sustained argument!

After you have your objective in mind, move on to the process of introduction creating.

Process gun manage essay. A process essay basically talks about how to do anything, how to reach stage B from level A. For illustration, your level A can be in which the mass shootings are achievable, and stage B – in which they are not possible.

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Considerations

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To what extent do you agree with this statement? Make use of detailed references to the perform in your response.

Let’s look at the themes we want to use and how to outline them.

Bear in mind that you don(t have to supply all from the first phrase otherwise, the audience will get rid of interest. If, for instance, you(re writing an essay about the contemporary English literature, don(t inform your audience how many books you(ve study to be capable to attain a individual conclusion. Rather, go for a surprising truth. Here is an example: “did you know that practically four billion of Shakespeare(s books have been sold until finally nowadays? Now imagine if any other contemporary writer could ever attain his fame. But is it all about fame, soon after all?”, and proceed by arguing how we can measure a book(s top quality and how this essay helps to show and suppor the thought. You have seeded the intrigue appropriate from the initial paragraph, which lets your readers wanting to read through a lot more.

Do not use “Dictionary defines…” in your opening. This details will not be even helpful ( we all know how the dictionary defines guide/friendship/home).

That(s why we want to aid you with that, supplying this guide. It would support you understand how to write an essay introduction, how to create an introduction for a lab report, how to compose an introduction for a research paper, and so on. Simply because in actuality introductions don(t vary too a lot – and aren(t as demanding to write as you might consider.

In this final submit, we looked at the structure of an essay. Let’s refresh our memory.

Create an introduction that interests the reader and efficiently outlines your arguments.

How to steer clear of typical blunders whilst writing an essay introduction?

4. Wrap it up

An introduction of your essay is the initial factor that your readers see, so it has a huge influence on the accomplishment of your complete essay. This is a cause why productive writers pay out specific attention to the introduction, and commit enough time and work, creating innovative and catchy hooks.

This edition of How to Create an Essay Introduction was specialist co-authored by Alexander Peterman on April 13, 2018. Discover far more.

Sadly, numerous students tackle only the initial of them. For the most portion, this helps make excellent sense. Right after all, the writers who actually recognize what it means to engage their readers are the pros. Why? Because they know extremely properly that their readers are their bread and butter and they will depart at a moment’s observe if the creating gets to be boring. Students, on the other hand, have a captive audience. Teachers and professors are paid to read through the work of their college students, so why need to the pupil care if their creating is engaging?

This publish, How to Framework Your Essay Introduction, is the second submit in our 5 portion Essay Creating Series. In it, we’ll clarify how to introduce your themes and framework them into an efficient thematic framework.

Diagram: The construction of an Essay (© Matrix Schooling 2017)

Now when you received the reader(s consideration, you can explain the total level of your essay a bit. The tough portion here is that you have to give some context with no providing as well many information at the identical time.

Following you have made a decision what type of hook does your essay need to have open with it. Don’t forget that some hooks need to have an explanation. For illustration: concerns and quotations.

The initial sentence is a fantastical possibility to hook your audience by using surprising information and description of your text. Your readers need to be ready to recognize what(s the essay about, whilst even now maintaining the component of surprise.

An introduction of your essay is the initial issue that your readers see, so it has a big affect on the accomplishment of your total essay. This is a explanation why effective writers shell out unique focus to the introduction, and spend ample time and energy, creating inventive and catchy hooks.

Often it(s not only the papers you want to write introductions for – its the letters and the speeches as well. The recommendations for their creating are extremely related.

The phrases described over, along with countless others, are the ideal way to entirely destroy your essay ahead of it even begins. If you commence your essay with these words, or anything even remotely shut to them, no one who is not becoming paid or who is not your mother will ever go through your paper—and even they will groan within themselves as they study.

The incorrect way to commence an essay is to simply and dryly explain what the essay is about. Whilst this is acceptable in elementary college, and maybe up by way of a particular stage of middle college, it is unacceptable by late middle school, via substantial school and most definitely at the collegiate level.

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Writing a thematic framework – A step-by-step guide

Create a summary at the starting

Really do not fail to remember that your thesis statement is the essence of the whole essay. This is your stage, and it need to be clear, distinctive, and persuasive. Your statement should inspire readers to read more, no matter do they agree with you or not. When you introduced your thesis statement, you have to make a transition to the body element, simply because the thesis statement is often the final sentence of your introduction. You can stick to this kind of an approach or not, but make confident that first sentences of the essay body are logically related to the last words of the introduction. Nonetheless, going straight from your thesis statement to the very first argument will make your thesis search stronger, and you won’t losereaders’ consideration.

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This demonstrates that there is a logical sequence to creating an essay. As we regarded in the prior publish, this method appears like:

This is the approach Matrix English Innovative students are taught to use when creating their introductions. When you compose your personal thematic framework, you could use two sentences if you want to be much more concise. We would advocate that you make it at least two sentences, ensuring you include adequate detail to foreground the argument you will present in the body.

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What is the Goal of the Introduction in an Essay

Creating an introductory paragraph is less complicated than it might look. The crucial to a effective intro is understanding the parts that go into it. Much like a watch has elements that, when put together, make it perform correctly, an introductory paragraph must have its very own person parts for it to work.

The significance of good essay introduction structure

So let’s attempt to comprehend what you should know to create a great essay introduction. An introduction is just like a map for your audience. It must give some data about your subject or give a suitable background and an outline. In addition, an introduction has to existing your thesis statement. An introduction supplies the first viewpoint about your perform. It can be extremely challenging to compose it for some people but we are going to give some recommendations for creating an essay introduction.

A discrepancy is generally noticeable when the introduction is written a brief time following finishing the essay. There is also no connection on a vocabulary degree amongst the two elements, when college students prefer to “impress” the audience by creating the introduction in a considerably more elevated way. Stay away from this strategy by getting a clear image on your audience in thoughts. Are you writing for a common public or is it a scientific essay, made to be read through by folks with an academic background? The solution must give you a best hint on how to sketch your introduction.

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Maintain in mind that, contrary to what is frequently taught in elementary school, the opening paragraph does not automatically call for a comprehensive listing of the principal points of your essay, even though that can be valuable at times. The only non-negotiable necessity for an introduction is a direct and clear statement of goal somewhere within that very first paragraph. With more inventive openings, it normally takes place close to the near of the very first paragraph, anticipating the deeper explanations that get place in the entire body paragraphs of the essay. Truly feel cost-free to be imaginative, but do not forget to straight deal with the question you have been asked!

As soon as you have conducted your study, it is time to begin creating. Just as any other essay, an argumentative essay on gun management comprises of 3 elements: the introducing paragraph, the main entire body paragraphs, and the concluding paragraphs. In the introducing paragraph, you existing your topic to the reader by providing some pertinent background info and stating your standpoint on the issue in your thesis statement. The principal body of your essay will consist of three elements: your standpoint on the situation, the opposing standpoint, and the explanation why your standpoint is proper and why the opposing 1 is incorrect. In the conclusion of your gun management argumentative essay, you briefly re-state your standpoint and why it is the right one particular.

Now that we have produced a thesis statement, we need to clarify what themes we will talk about and how we will strategy them. We phone this part of the introduction the thematic framework.

Hooks can be produced in an infinite number of methods, but here is a listing of approaches that typically demonstrate useful. Note that this is a list that you have probably witnessed before (most colleges supply such a list), but be positive to read on as it is in the implementation of these suggestions that they both realize success or fail:

But regardless of hearing all that a few of us really comprehend how to compose an introduction paragraph properly ample. It could look challenging as it is, not even saying about certain demands. Is essay introduction different from a analysis paper a single? How to create an APA introduction? Students may well feel overwhelmed by these concerns, unable to uncover solutions on their personal.

The initial step required is to produce a subject sentence. Your subject sentence need to foreshadow the rest of the essay by telling the reader the principal idea of your paper. The subject sentence need to also capture the reader(s attention or “hook” them into your essay. You want to give them a cause to proceed studying. You can accomplish this by commencing off with a quote, questions, or breaking a social stigma with an fascinating truth. If for illustration, you are creating an essay about coffee, then you might commence it off like this: “Half of Americans are drug addicts as caffeine has turn into the most widely utilised drug in the globe.” One more way to compose a subject sentence is to separate your individual suggestions. For example, “Coffee need-to-write-the-best-conclusion-paragraph-tips-how-to-do-it is an addictive drug simply because it stimulates the nervous program, triggers enhanced alertness, and can be addictive.” This makes it possible for you to develop paragraphs close to these tips and lets the reader know what lies ahead.

Similes and metaphors are amongst the most powerful linguistic gadgets accessible. When employed properly, they can carry profound curiosity and insight to a given subject. Employing them well is, of program, the tough component. The trick to using them effectively is be sure that the nature of the symbol you use shares a fantastic deal in widespread with the subtleties of the subject you are discussing. The broader and a lot more particular individuals connections are, the more powerful its linguistic power.

In this publish, we will answer these concerns and then give you a step-by-phase guidebook to creating a thematic framework.

Your thesis statement not only summarizes your claims, it determines the way how you present details. It is referred to as an “angle”, and excellent essays often have an expressed creating “angle”. To make your essay very good, we recommend you to write your thesis just before you start off creating the introduction. It will be the best guideline for it. Really don’t overlook that a thesis is not a reality. It’s your point, and readers should be ready to talk about it. It must be a imagined that wants to be proven with arguments and facts.

1. Locate the way to grab the reader(s focus

Every sentence of each and every paragraph must relate to the introduction of your essay. You could locate a excellent illustration on the net. The body need to help and refer to the major topic thought as effectively. Normally, you require only 5 paragraphs all-in-all: introduction, body, and conclusion. So, do not create many pages rather of the required a single or two – stay away from overwhelming your essay with unnecessary data. If you notice that dimension of your essay is too lengthy, edit and make it shorter but still clear in the finish.

ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY ON GUN Control

Expert Insight

Require a lot more aid with your intro?

In this, component 2 of our Essay Creating Series we make clear how to structure your essay introduction. You may want to read through the other posts in our series before this a single:

An essay is our viewpoint on the text, this is reflected in any statement we make. By taking a nuanced position we really do not need to have to say that we are arguing to a specific extent. It is implicit in our response.

You should be in a position to estimate your audience and get it into account for the duration of the entire writing approach. Think which details might be useful for your readers, and what they might not know about your subject. Your main aim is to make your readers get your message plainly, comprehending all necessary particulars.

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Posters should have been placed all over the city, a large opening ceremony followed by a press release, and a dedicated social media campaign to let everyone know of his grand opening. If you get reviewed by a popular app blog like AppAdvice, you can expect a similar amount of traffic to flow through to your website and App Store listing.

Proceed with the most accurate market research and analysis the niche indicating the most efficient media sources for your further promotion considering countries and marketplaces available there. All it has done to promote itself is place a sign outside its door saying “Come on in!”. In it we run through why it’s important and how to get your app listing optimized. Meaning you have to convince the website that your app is good enough to be reviewed by them and therefore featured on their site. His restaurant should have been a smashing success. Meaning you have to convince the website that your app is good enough to be reviewed by them and therefore featured on their site. Everything from strategically placing the most relevant widgets, beautifully crafted layout designs, and engaging educational content. |Spending cash to buy google play store reviews and ratings makes it worth while if you’re guaranteed the website in which you got it is reliable. The main reason? com, Samsung app store, and so forth. Promoting in-app purchases may also encourage downloads of your app. Buy app store reviews and ratings which could increase the prospect of app users to find you app within the Play Store. Our customer care team is able to advise you regarding any question or problem through Live change massanger and Email ticket Support. Also we’re focusing on exploring and stopping any cheating behaviors. The outdoors PR firm can concentrate on the iPhone app solely.

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Even set a regular limit so that you can develop points and obtain a steady flow of reviews. The conventional retention campaigns are fast and incredibly affordable which makes them ideal for new apps or games that need immediate exposure as quickly as possible permanently early rankings. Like a marketer, it’s important to understand your audience’s mobile usage to make sure possible you when, how and where they’re searching for your business around the device of the choice. When customers notice a guide, they’ll have the ability to comprehend the product and just what value it offers. The main reason? Our customer care team is able to advise you regarding any question or problem through Live change massanger and Email ticket Support. That is why we recommend getting an app user acquisition strategy in position just before launch and also to address it while you would any traditional affiliate marketing. Some developers buy downloads from company after which stop buying having seen an impressive increase of ranking of app, that is totally wrong. Essentially, you’re in a position to bid for relevant keywords to ensure that whenever a user is trying to find apps utilizing a particular term, your app seems first. These steps is only going to set you back time and we’re certain that should you follow them, you’ll have a significant increase in many supporters and downloads then you’ve now. Your day goes by and also the owner is confused. Doubt starts to crawl its means by and all of a sudden we’re wondering if maybe creating an app would be a wrong move from the beginning. Promotion Apps are unique, quick-to-build, custom tabs for the web, mobile and Facebook Pages. The issue more often than not isn’t the app itself, rather, it’s the crucial step so frequently missed following the app is produced, promotion. In the end, you need to make certain that anything you are building, will probably be just satisfactory You can start to achieve to your clients beginning with creating listing of everyone you’ve ever offered to as well as individuals who’ve only agreed to your e-newsletter. Incentivize your clients by providing them a unique discount, or some type of educational content.

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People who actually feel they may have a special would like to know what things to do take put on a phone, and at what time these things to do are taking place will have ways to learn this. When you should consider the precise whole entire basic fact around the activities over a smart phone, now you can spy on it with a brand new hybrid technological innovation termed android spy software.

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What sort of summer months or element time work for lecturers are out there? You could tutor, but usually that can be a inconvenience with obtaining a position to meet for the tutoring, though many of my close friends completed have perfectly. I’ve often favored to do a little something completely unique from my regular occupation when earning added funds. This can help you to remain contemporary when you reenter the classroom. Jobs that leave you drained are not the best summer time or element time employment for teachers.

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Offer entire facts. Strive to provide your viewers with total, in depth article critique facts so you can successfully educate them. Do not go away any stone unturned when doing your investigation and current write my thesis statement all the information that your audience have to have to know in a incredibly uncomplicated to understand manner.Debra: Of course, I’ve generally been a sucker for these forms of stories, in fact. I like “The Prince and the Pauper” (Twain is 1 of the finest American authors, in my viewpoint), as nicely as numerous other tales using that very same concept.

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Today, most of the male singles flipping towards finding Asian wives for them selves. The reason being Hard anodized cookware wives are considered to be the world’s best and adoring wives. There are so many examples of American males married to Asian females. Asian women never forget their culture, dignity for elders and convention, no matter wherever they go.

Asian females with oriental features are experiencing expressionless face structure. For that reason they have an air of unpredictability and enigma. Adult males mostly love this deceptive feature and admire the idea.

Most of the People today in america, British people love to manage to get thier body tattooed with emotional and religious symbols from Japan, China and India. They feel it appears hip and quiet spectral. Asian kitchenware girls always keep their custom and beliefs on the earliest place.

There is no doubt about this truth. If you will say an Asian female that the girl with beautiful, she will give you a smile in a respectful way. It’s not possible in case of most of the north west women. This is because it is on their culture and tradition to help you smile and treat each one with gratitude.

They give complete support and be an aid to their spouse. Great program, encouragement, peace, loves and care is what ordered to provide by every single male everywhere over the world. She will make your entire day and night superb and full of beautiful moments. Cookware women can also prepare meals you love to eat. What are the significant traits that make Asian wives better than western wives?

Numerous western people are remarkably attracted and captivated on the culture, history, exotic looks, and color of Tibet. In back few years, The japanese has attained the situation of trendier place as opposed to the western countries.

A great Asian female is a mixture of exotic oriental features, very difficult bodies, petite structure, mind blowing skin and silky locks. These are some things which every male wants for his wife. This solution is completely irresistible.

For an example, visit Philippines provinces, people so poor but still they will welcome you with a have fun. Another fact is that Asian kitchenware females are shyer as opposed to the western females but at one time you will treat them within a friendly manner, they will always welcome you with dignity.

Take out time and go to the home which is managed just by an Asian wife. You will realize complete cleanliness around. Everything will be well managed and organized. Asian girls come to feel proud in managing his or her’s homes and family. They will love to cook food themselves and also love to keep every chore as clean as is feasible.

It has been world wide acclaimed that Asian females give more priority to their home than the western females. They may remain loyal towards you around their life. They will try everything to solve the problem and definately will always try their best to prevent things that can create relationship issues.

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If you livin an area wherthsoiis moisand theris a loof underground water, you mighhavto instala French drain to redirecwater from onspoto another. Thdownward slopof thdrain wiltransfer thmoisturand water from a damp spowherwater has been accumulating to a garden irrigation system lika dry well, or a rain garden. This protects thfoundation of a homfrom damagcaused by damp and water accumulation. When thwater is moisand thclimatdoes nopermithready evaporation of thwater in thsoil, French drains havto binstalled to keep thtop soifrefrom wespots.

Nutrition musalso ba parof your plan. Plan ouwhato eafor each day in order to avoid getting cramps and in order to build up your energy. You should probably consider eating 6 smaller meals than thusua3 fulmeals during training days. Whilresting, eaa loof protein. Plan to easofter, easily digested foods shortly beforyou go training.

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A speed workouroutininvolves running faslaps, alternated with slower ones. Thimportanthing to remember is noto overdo thfaslaps alaoncto preveninjuries. You can try doing 5 sets of 400 meters each, firsaa slow pacand then slowly build up through thweeks. This method can increasthaerobic potentiaof your exercises and can help improvyour musclstrength.

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Well, therarthrevarious sporting events involved in thtriathlon. You’lneed to plan on how to preparfor every of them. You as welhavto plan in “bricks”, or days when you train on 2 of thseverasporting events thayou wilbtransitioning between in thactuatriathlon. So, you’lhavto plan on days wheryou do swimming, then Cycling. You’lplan on days wheryou bike, then run. You havto bfully appareled for every practicsporon thosdays, as well. Do ilikyou arperforming ion thactuarace.

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can’emphasizenough: kids arkids. They do nolearn in a vacuum; neither do they excewhen unsupervised. Even if parents know nothing abouthsubjecmatter (i.e. a second language), thashould nokeep them from being involved in thlearning. Passing thtorch to a distanteacher does noquitgeyou off thhook. Thateacher’s influence, however valuable, is limited. It’s stilup to thparento keep thchild engaged and on schedule.

To somparents, such habits may seem annoying, bukids who show a keen interesin acquiring scientific knowledgearly in lifeventually becomintelligent, inquisitivteens and adults who don’taka simpl”yes” or “no” for an answer. Their curious minds wiltakthem far!

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March is the awareness month for Kidney Cancer, Colorectal Cancer and Multiple Myeloma. Last year, this writer focused on colorectal cancer (article available at www.cecpng.org blog page). This article will focus on Kidney Cancer.

KidneyCancer-AWARE

Kidney cancer is also known as renal cancer. It is a cancer that starts in the kidneys. The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs, each about the size of a fist. They are attached to the upper back wall of the abdomen, with one on either side of the backbone. The lower rib cage protects the kidneys. The kidneys’ main function is to remove excess water, salt, and waste products from the blood in form of urine. The kidneys also help control blood pressure and ensure that the body has enough red blood cells.

KIDNEY

Although, the survival rate for kidney cancer is very high if found at an early stage, kidney cancer is among the most fatal cancers in Nigeria, with over 900 new cases and about 800 deaths yearly, according to WHO. This implies that two Nigerians die every day of this disease, with a death rate of over 80%, compared to the much lower global mortality rate of 40%. In the United States of America, the death rate of kidney cancer is about 25% with more than 200,000 kidney cancer survivors currently living in USA.

Given the high potential for survival with this disease, it is imperative for all Nigerians to be kidney cancer aware. This will greatly enhance survivorship in Nigeria.

Risk factors that could make an individual more likely to develop kidney cancer, include: lifestyle-related and job-related risk factors such as smoking, obesity, workplace exposure to certain substances, including certain herbicides, and organic solvents. Genetic and hereditary conditions, such as Sickle cell disease can also increase the tendency to develop certain types of kidney cancer. However, genetic factors account for only a small portion of cases overall.

Age and gender are also risk factors of kidney cancer. Globally, kidney cancer is more common in men than women. However, in Nigeria, the reverse is the case. The risk of kidney cancer increases with age. The average age at diagnosis is 64 in whites, in whom kidney cancer is rare under age 45. However, in Nigeria, kidney cancer tends to occur earlier, with the average age of occurrence being in the forties. A certain type of kidney cancer known as Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma) almost always occurs in children, being the second most common cancer in Nigerian children.

Other risk factors include: high blood pressure and advanced kidney disease especially those needing dialysis as well as family history of kidney cancer. The long-term, regular use of certain drugs, such as non-aspirin anti-inflammatory pain killers and diuretics (water pills) also increase the risk. Therefore, long-term use should only be undertaken after consultation with a doctor, who can appropriately evaluate benefits / risks and monitor treatment closely. Individuals placed on these medications should not panic but should observe the other preventive measures stated below.

It is important to note that having a risk factor, or even several risk factors, does not mean that one will get the disease. Conversely, some people who get the disease may have few or no known risk factors. This is illustrated by the case of Mrs. Vera Williams (not her real name) who was recently diagnosed with stage III kidney cancer at the age of thirty (30). This young nursing mother had none of the risk factors outlined above.

The risk of kidney cancer can be reduced by life-style modification. These include quitting smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising, choosing a diet high in fruits and vegetables, as well as getting treatment for high blood pressure. Avoiding workplace exposure to harmful substances such as cadmium and organic solvents may also reduce the risk for renal cancer.

 QUIT SMOKE

Early kidney cancers do not usually cause any signs or symptoms, but larger ones might. Kidney cancers can sometimes grow quite large without causing any problems. In addition, because the kidneys are deep inside the body, small kidney tumors cannot be seen or felt during a physical examination. The most common symptom of kidney cancer is painless urination of blood, a condition known as haematuria. Other possible signs and symptoms of kidney cancer include: low back or flank pain or pressure on one side (not caused by injury), presence of a mass, a hard lump or a thickening or bulging under the skin that can be seen or felt on the side or lower back. Tiredness, loss of appetite, weight loss not caused by dieting, and unexplained fever are also symptoms of kidney cancer.

bloody urine

It is noteworthy, that these signs and symptoms can also be caused by other diseases apart from kidney cancer. For example, blood in the urine is most often caused by a bladder or urinary tract infection or a kidney stone. Still, presence of any of these symptoms should prompt evaluation by a doctor so that the cause can be found and treated.

Although, there are no universal screening tests for kidney cancer risk, a urine test which should be part of routine medical checkup, may find small amounts of blood in the urine of some people with early kidney cancer. This is known as microscopic haematuria. Imaging tests such as Ultrasound Scan, Computed Tomography (CT) Scans and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scans can often find small kidney cancers. With increasing use of these imaging test in the evaluation of nonspecific abdominal complaints in developed countries, most cases of kidney cancers are often found accidentally when they are causing no symptoms.

kidney cancer image

People at increased risk of kidney cancer should get regular imaging tests (CT, MRI, or ultrasound scans) to look for kidney tumors. Kidney cancers that are found early with these tests can often be cured. In addition, it is expedient that any one that passes blood in the urine, even if it occurs only once, should have an imaging test done to determine the cause before instituting treatment. Health practitioners should not merely prescribe antibiotics or anti-schistosomal drugs for patients with haematuria, without fully evaluating them.

Treatment options for kidney cancer include: surgery, ablation (e.g. cryotherapy) and other local therapies, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy (biologic therapy) and chemotherapy. In some cases, a combination of more than one type of treatment might be used. However, surgery which could be partial or total, is the main treatment for most kidney cancers. The chances of surviving kidney cancer without having surgery are small.

Unfortunately, Nigerians are often afraid of surgery. Those that present with early stage disease, often default after being informed of the need for surgery. They then opt for traditional / spiritual / alternative treatment, only to present much later with incurable disease.

At this point, we must note that the kidneys are important, but a person actually needs less than one complete kidney to function. Many people in the United States are living normal, healthy lives with just one kidney. So people should not be afraid of undertaking surgery.

Clearly, the key to improved kidney cancer survival is prevention and early detection. Regrettably, the diagnostic imaging tests are expensive, not widely available and out of the reach of most people in Nigeria.

The good news is that with a routine urine test, kidney cancer could be picked up early. However, most Nigerians do not have the culture of carrying out routine medical screening. Some elderly Nigerians pride themselves in never having any need to visit the hospital. Often such people’s first visit to hospital would be when they are rushed there, moribund. This culture is fueled by the absence of a national system of health promotion and the dearth of preventive medical facilities, especially in the rural areas.

One way of ensuring early detection of kidney cancer is by taking advantage of existing opportunities for routine screening, for instance during pregnancy. Mrs. Vera Williams had regular urine test during Antenatal Care (ANC). However, the form of urine testing carried out at ANC is often limited to checking for glucose and protein. Her case calls for a review of the current practice. Routine urine test should be more comprehensive so as to include test for blood. If this had been done for Vera, she could have been diagnosed at a curable stage.

There remains an urgent need for an accessible and organized system of cancer prevention and health promotion. A mobile system of preventive health care is the best solution. The Collaborative Research-USA Network of Mobile Clinics, posits that “The mobile clinic sector is an untapped resource for helping the nation reduce health disparities while improving care, improving health and saving healthcare costs”.

This is why the current focus of Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP-Nigeria) is to acquire and deploy Mobile Cancer Centres (MCC) across the country. Because the MCC contains facilities for imaging (ultrasonography) and comprehensive urine test, it would greatly facilitate the early diagnosis of kidney cancer in Nigeria.  The operational partner of CECP is the National Cancer Prevention Programme (NCPP), a non-governmental initiative. NCPP has been at the forefront of efforts towards the establishment of effective system of nation-wide cancer control in Nigeria. The MCC would make holistic preventive health care accessible at the grassroots.

mobile cancer centre

CECP hereby uses this opportunity to appreciate all the Nigerian philanthropists who have identified with this cause, by pledging to contribute towards the MCC.  CECP invites every person of goodwill to support this initiative as we work towards deploying the first set of MCCs by the October Cancer Awareness Month.

According to the Union for International Cancer Control, ‘Together we can take action to make a difference’. We can! I can! 

This article was published in the Guardian Newspaper on Thursday, March 24, 2016

© 2016 Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP- Nigeria)

 

FACES OF PHILANTHROPY IN NIGERIA: CALL FOR NOMINATION

 

CK-PMB-GIN

INTRODUCTION

In 2012, the United Nations Foundation introduced #GivingTuesday, a global day to engender and celebrate generosity.  #GivingTuesday is observed world-wide, supported by business, political, and social leaders, who jointly champion fund-raising for community development.

The Presidents and Heads of Government of many nations have become patrons of this philanthropic movement, a universally recognized way for patriotic citizens to contribute to the developmental efforts of government.

THE GRAND PATRON AND NATIONAL PATRON OF #GIVINGTUESDAY IN NIGERIA

The Grand Patron of #GivingTuesday in Nigeria (#GivingTuesdayNg) is His Excellency, President Mohammadu Buhari, GCFR; President and Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

The National Patron is His Excellency, Prof. Yemi Osinbajo, SAN, GCON; Vice-President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

ANCHOR: Dr Christopher Kolade, CON

THE FACES OF PHILANTHROPY IN NIGERIA

The Face of Philanthropy is a special honour for philanthropy, conferred annually.

The ‘Face of Philanthropy’ is a man or woman who is investing his or her resources to create positive change and make life better for the masses, through the practice of massive, exceptional and far-reaching philanthropy, particularly at the grassroots.

A person honoured as a ‘Face of Philanthropy’ would be entitled to the use of the post-nominal letters ‘PhiN’ which stands for ‘Philanthrope Nationale’ (French for ‘National Philanthropist’).

To mark #GivingTuesday each year, CECP shall issue a special publication titled ‘Philanthropy in Nigeria’ which would contain the profile of the Faces of Philanthropy in Nigeria.

The final list of honorees will be unveiled at a Presidential event which would be broadcast live by the Broadcasting Organizations of Nigeria (BON).

THE BENEFITS TO THE NATION

  1. Encouragement: By celebrating them, Nigerians who practice life-changing philanthropy would be motivated to do more
  2. Challenge: The initiative would challenge and inspire potential and future philanthropists
  3. Documentation: The book ‘Philanthropy in Nigeria’ would provide a one-stop documentation of philanthropy/corporate social investment (CSI) as practiced in Nigeria and/or by Nigerians
  4. National Image: The initiative will make a positive impact on the image of Nigeria in the comity of nations

NOMINATION PROCESS

Nominate the number one philanthropist in your Local Government Area of origin or domicile, for this honour, by sending the following information about your nominee to faces@cecpng.org or by sms only to 08095553555.

- Name of your nominee

- Home town and Local Government Area of your nominee

- Direct GSM Number of your nominee

- Contact Address of your nominee

- The THREE major Philanthropic achievements of your nominee

YOU SHOULD CONCLUDE THE NOMINATION BY STATING YOUR NAME AND GSM NUMBER.

NYSC YOUTH CORP MEMBERS SHOULD ALSO STATE THEIR PLACE OF PRIMARY ASSIGNMENT, CALL UP NUMBER AND STATE CODE NUMBER 

IMPORTANT NOTES

1. Each participant is entitled to only one nominee

2. Participants cannot nominate themselves

3. Nomination closes at 12 noon on February 29, 2016.

DEMYSTIFYING CERVICAL CANCER

WELCOME TO CECP-NIGERIA'S BLOG

WELCOME TO CECP-NIGERIA’S BLOG

“These findings bring into sharp focus the need to implement the tools already available for cervical cancer, notably HPV vaccination combined with well-organized national programmes for screening and treatment”. - Dr Christopher Wild, Director of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)

CervicalCancer Awareness Month

January is cervical cancer awareness month. Cervical cancer, or cancer of the cervix, is cancer of the neck of the womb. The baby grows in the body of the womb (the upper part). The cervix connects the body of the womb to the vagina (birth canal). In other words, the cervix is the door of life. Sadly, when cervical cancer occurs, this door of life becomes the door to death. Cervical cancer is the easiest of all cancers to prevent; yet it is the second most common cancer killer in Nigerian women.

cervical cancer

This high mortality is partly due to some misunderstandings and false believes surrounding the disease. To mark this year’s Cervical Cancer Awareness Month, this article would attempt to demystify cervical cancer with focus on 20 common myths.

MYTH 1: We do not know the cause of cervical cancer. TRUTH: Infection with the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), is an absolute requirement for cervical cancer to develop. HPV is the root cause of more than 5% of cancers, including cervical cancer and cancers at other sites such as vagina, vulva (the outer part of the female genital organs), penis, scrotum, perineum, anus, head/neck, mouth, throat, nose, tonsil, skin, nail-bed, and conjunctiva (eye). There are over 150 types of HPV but the 4 that cause most of the diseases are Types 6, 11, 16 and 18. HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) in the world, with the highest prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa.

virus_papiloma_humano

MYTH 2: I am not promiscuous, so I can’t have cervical cancer. TRUTH: Although HPV can be spread during sex − including vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, and oral sex − sex doesn’t have to occur for the infection to spread. All that is needed to pass HPV from one person to another is skin-to-skin contact with an area of the body infected with HPV. Therefore, even never having sex doesn’t guarantee that one cannot get infected.   Recently, a woman presented at the National Cancer Prevention Programme (NCPP) with complaint of post-coital bleeding (bleeding after sexual intercourse). She was investigated and confirmed to have cervical cancer. The news was received by her with utter disbelief, because she has had only one sexual partner – her husband. This story buttresses the point that having only one partner does not preclude one from being infected with HPV. However, it is important to note that women who get sexually exposed at an early age and those with multiple sexual partners have higher risk of developing the disease.

MYTH 3: Cervical cancer cannot be prevented. TRUTH: Cervical cancer is virtually 100% preventable, through screening and vaccination. Vaccines are now available to protect against HPV infection. Preventing HPV infection dramatically reduces a woman’s risk of cervical cancer. In addition, cervical cancer usually develops slowly after persistent infection with HPV and will first appear as a precancerous condition called dysplasia or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). It usually takes several years for cervical pre-cancer to change to cervical cancer, but it can happen in less than a year. Cervical Screening detects these precancerous conditions which could be effectively treated to prevent cervical cancer from developing.

HPV VACCINE

Other protective measures include sexual discipline, non-smoking, balanced diet, and optimal feminine hygiene. Each of these behaviours relate to known risk factors for this disease.

MYTH 4: I don’t have intercourse, so I don’t need the HPV vaccine. TRUTH: to get the most out of the HPV vaccine, it needs to be taken before any type of sexual contact with another person and therefore, exposure to HPV. The recommended age-range for routine immunization against HPV is 9 years to 26 years. However, studies have shown that Gardasil also protects women between 27 years and 45 years.

MYTH 5: Cervical Cancer prevention does not concern men. TRUTH: As noted earlier, the disease is caused by infection with the sexually transmitted HPV. This implies that men are involved with its transmission. Besides, every woman that is affected by cervical cancer is a man’s wife, sister, aunt, daughter or niece. Therefore men should encourage and support their female relatives to take advantage of the available preventive measures.

MYTH 6: HPV vaccine is meant for females alone. TRUTH: There are three types of HPV vaccines – a bivalent vaccine (Cervarix), a quadrivalent vaccine (Gardasil) and a 9-valent vaccine (Gardasil 9).  The bivalent vaccine protects against only 2 types of HPV (16 and 18) and is recommended for females alone for prevention of cervical cancer. The quadrivalent vaccine protects against 4 types of HPV (6, 11, 16 and 18). Gardasil 9 protects against the same 4 types of HPV as the quadrivalent vaccine, plus 5 other high risk types: 31, 33, 45, 52 and 58. The Gardasils thus prevent most cases of cervical cancer, and other cancers caused by HPV infection, including a proportion of genital, anal, oral and throat cancers. The Gardasils also prevent genital warts and Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP). The Gardasils are approved for both males and females. Vaccinating boys against HPV might also help protect girls from the virus by decreasing transmission. The vaccines are usually given in three doses over six months. The US Centre for Disease Control (CDC) recommends that people should get the same vaccine brand for all three doses i.e. Cervarix and Gardasil should not be used interchangeably.

new_gardasil

MYTH 7: I use condoms during sex, so I don’t need HPV vaccine. TRUTH: The use of condom does not give full protection against HPV, since it could be transmitted through skin – skin contact. A person can get infected with HPV even with the correct use of condom. Condoms are more effective in protecting against other STIs like HIV/AIDS.

MYTH 8, I have had HPV vaccine, I do not need to get screened for cervical cancer. TRUTH: HPV vaccine does not protect against all the types of HPV that can cause cervical cancer, so it’s still important to continue regular screenings. According to the American Cancer Society, the most important thing you can do to prevent cervical cancer is to be screened.

MYTH 9:  Family planning increases cervical cancer risk. TRUTH: The Intrauterine Device (IUD or coil) reduces the risk of cervical cancer. Conversely, Oral contraceptive pill can increase the risk of cervical cancer. The hormones in oral contraceptives may change the susceptibility of cervical cells to HPV infection, affect their ability to clear the infection, or make it easier for HPV infection to cause changes that progress to cervical cancer. However, cervical screening can detect cervical changes before they develop into full-blown cancers. And in women who have had HPV vaccination, the vaccine reduces the risk of developing cervical cancer by helping prevent infection by HPV.

MYTH 10: I don’t have symptoms of cervical cancer, so I don’t need cervical cancer screening. TRUTH: Cancer screening means testing for cancer before symptoms develop. Moreover, cervical cancer is usually asymptomatic in the early stage, hence it is known as the silent killer. Therefore, the fact that a woman is asymptomatic is not an excuse for not carrying out screening.

MYTH 11, I’m too young to worry about cervical cancer and its screening. TRUTH: Cervical cancer kills more 24-35years old women in developing countries than any other cancer in any other part of the world. HPV infection and the precancerous condition are common in younger women. In Nigeria, therefore, a woman’s first cervical screening should be done when she turns 18 or three years after she begins having sex, whichever comes first. We have seen teenagers with cervical cancer in Nigeria.

MYTH 12, I’m too old to need a cervical screening any longer. TRUTH: There is an increase in cancer incidence including cervical cancer in older populations.

MYTH 13, I can’t go for screening because if cancer is diagnosed, I can’t deal with it. TRUTH: Cervical screening can pick up the precancerous stages of cervical cancer which could be effectively treated with cryosurgery, a 15 minutes procedure. Screening can also pick up the early stages of cancer, which is also curable.

MYTH 14, I have been screened for cervical cancer, I don’t need to repeat the screening. TRUTH, in our environment, Cervical Cancer Screening should be repeated yearly. Although, some western countries no longer routinely carry out yearly screening, they used to, until they recorded significant decrease in cervical cancer death rate. The new guideline by the American Cancer Society is that women should have cervical cancer screening every 3 years. However, they recommended that women who are at high risk for cervical cancer may need to be screened more often.

Women in developing countries like ours, should be regarded as high risk since sub-Saharan Africa has the highest prevalence of HPV, and 26% of women in Nigeria are positive for the virus. Furthermore, low socioeconomic status has proven to be a significant risk factor for invasive cervical cancer. Besides, with longer intervals between screenings, there is the risk of women forgetting and missing their screening.

A case that illustrates the importance of yearly screening in our environment is that of a young lady in her thirties, who had been complying with her yearly cervical cancer screening at the NCPP centre since 2008. Her screening results were normal until 2013, when she had an abnormal screening result. Cervical biopsy revealed that she had the precancerous cervical changes. She was subsequently treated with cryosurgery. All her follow-up test have been normal since then.

MYTH 15: My cervical screening was abnormal, which means I must have cancer. TRUTH: This is not necessarily so. There is need for follow-up tests, including colposcopy and a biopsy to test for cancerous cells. An abnormal screening could indicate a precancerous condition that can be treated. Conversely, a negative screening does not always mean a woman is cancer-free. About 10 percent of all cervical screening return a false negative result, meaning the test did not identify a problem that is there. If there are problems such as bleeding or pain, further evaluation is necessary even if the screening was normal. This small chance of having a false negative result, also buttresses the importance of yearly screening in our environment.

MYTH 16: My cervical screening was abnormal; Vaccination can treat the problem. TRUTH: HPV vaccination helps to prevent pre-cancers and cancers of the cervix but does not treat HPV infection or the abnormal changes.

MYTH 17: Cervical cancer has no symptoms. TRUTH: While cervical cancer may show no symptoms at the early stage. Symptoms will occur later. These include bleeding after intercourse, bleeding between menstrual periods or bleeding after menopause. Other symptoms include an abnormal discharge or pain in the pelvic region. In 2012, a medical doctor presented at the NCPP centre with complaint of persistent vaginal discharge for which she had to be using panty liners. The discharge had persisted in spite of treatment with several medications. On evaluation, it turned out that she had cervical cancer. The lesson: not all vaginal discharge is “toilet infection”.

MYTH 18: If I am diagnosed with cervical cancer, I am going to die. TRUTH: Survival after cervical cancer caught in its earliest stage is 92 percent. The later it is diagnosed, the lower the chance of survival. Survival is lower in developing countries because of inadequate screening. Regular screening will help ensure cervical cancer is caught at an early, treatable stage.

MYTH 19: After I finish treatment, I will live the rest of my life worried about cancer returning. TRUTH: In most cases early cervical cancer never returns, once it is properly treated. However, if cervical cancer is going to recur, it is most likely to happen in the first two years after treatment. The risk of recurrence is extremely low after five years following treatment. However, it is important to continue regular screening.

MYTH 20: I must have a hysterectomy (surgery that removes the cervix and womb) to treat cervical cancer. TRUTH: It is true that early cervical cancer is typically treated with a hysterectomy. However, it is not the only option. Radiation and chemotherapy are used to treat more advanced disease and may also be options for women with early stage disease who cannot have surgery. Some women with early cervical cancer can also avoid hysterectomy with procedures such as a cone biopsy that removes only the cancerous tissue and a small margin of surrounding healthy tissue, or a procedure called radical trachelectomy, which removes the cervix but not the uterus.

More importantly, all of these expensive and traumatic procedures can be avoided by regular screening to pick up the precancerous stage which could be treated with cryosurgery.

Unfortunately, even if our women are aware of all these truths, most of them cannot take action because of the lack of adequate facilities for screening, diagnosis & follow-up in Nigeria, particularly in the rural areas. Obviously, there is an urgent need for a well-organized national system of cancer prevention that is accessible to all Nigerians.

To address this need, the National Cancer Prevention Programme (NCPP), a non-governmental initiative, pioneered community-based mass cervical cancer screening campaign in Nigeria, in 2007. Since then; over 100,000 Nigerians have been directly screened, vaccinated and treated so far, and through the awareness created, the NCPP is helping to protect millions of Nigerians from cancer.

This sacrificial effort has contributed to a 15% reduction of cervical cancer deaths in Nigeria from 26 women dying daily to 22 daily between 2008 and 2012 (World Health Organization data). The significance of this modest improvement is underlined by the fact that W.H.O. had projected a 25% increase in cervical cancer deaths within ten years, in the absence of widespread intervention.

However, we can do much better than that! The improvement in cervical cancer survivorship in Nigeria is proof positive that we can beat Cancer, if we could scale up the effort.

The BIG WAR Against Cancer is the current focus of Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP-Nigeria). It is designed to establish the infrastructure for efficient and effective cancer prevention and treatment in the country. The short-term goal of the BIG WAR is to acquire and deploy 37 Mobile Cancer Centres (MCC), one for each state and FCT, Abuja; these will take cancer prevention and early treatment to the grassroots, by energizing the impact of NCPP. As a longer-term goal, the CECP is committed to spearheading the establishment of one Comprehensive Cancer Centre in each of Nigeria’s geopolitical zones.

According to the USA Network of Mobile Clinics, “The mobile clinic sector is an untapped resource for helping the nation reduce health disparities while improving care and saving healthcare costs.” A study by the Harvard Medical School found that for every dollar invested in the operation of the mobile clinic, $20 was saved in terms of management of chronic illnesses, avoided hospital visits, and prevention of diseases.

A single MCC in a state of Nigeria could make a huge positive difference. That state would be divided into smaller units such that every community would be reached by the MCC at least once a year.

We cannot achieve this unless we ACT! (Attack Cancer Together!). Fortunately, two Nigerian philanthropists have already pledged to donate the first Mobile Cancer Centre. This is a clarion call for all Nigerians of goodwill to support this movement and prevent unnecessary cancer deaths of our beloved compatriots. Together, we can! Yes, I can!

This article was published in BusinessDay Newspaper of Friday January 22, 2016, Guardian Newspaper of Thursday, January 28, 2016 and ThisDay Newspaper of Thursday, January 28, 2016

© 2016 Committee Encouraging Corporate Philanthropy (CECP- Nigeria)